Explains the history behind the drafting of the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, and the Federalist Papers. Analyzes how the Supreme Court has used and interpreted the Federalist Papers. ´´It has been frequently remarked that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend for their political constitutions on accident and force. If there be any truth in the remark, the crisis at which we are arrived may with propriety be regarded as the era in which that decision is to be made.´´ (Alexander Hamilton, Federalist number one) In 1787, delegates from the recently independent 13 colonies met in Philadelphia to try to forge a new, stronger constitution. That summer, the representatives ironed out a document that had pluses and minuses for all involved, a point noted by Ben Franklin in explaining why he assented to it at the end of the process: ´´For, when you assemble a number of men to have the advantage of their joint wisdom, you inevitably assemble with those men all their prejudices, their passions, their errors of opinion, their local interests, and their selfish views. From such an assembly can a perfect production be expected? It therefore astonishes me, sir, to find this system approaching so near to perfection as it does; and I think it will astonish our enemies, who are waiting with confidence to hear that our councils are confounded like those of the builders of Babel; and that our states are on the point of separation, only to meet hereafter for the purpose of cutting one another´s throats. Thus I consent, sir, to this constitution because I expect no better and because I am not sure that it is not the best.” 1. Language: English. Narrator: Donnie Sipes. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/039024/bk_acx0_039024_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
What form did Christianity take in the first 30 years? Before the Jewish Christians were slaughtered by Rome and before the emergence of the Pauline sect, while the faith was still under the guiding hand of James, the brother of Jesus, what did the pure and unaltered church look like? By examining the Didache, the ´´Q´´ document, and the book of James we will look back into the first years of the faith. The difference between the beliefs of the apostles and modern Christianity will astonish you. The Didache is a manual written by the early Christians, a break away sect of Judaism, instructing converts on how to be Christians and how to conduct themselves in daily life. It is a magnificent view of the beliefs and rituals of the earliest form of Christianity as propagated by those who knew Jesus best; his brother and the original apostles. By the time of the Roman massacre of the Jews (66 C.E. - 70 C.E.) there were three major division in early Christianity: the original Jewish Christians, the gnostic Christians, and the quickly growing Pauline sect that was breaking away from its more formal Jewish roots. There was a one in three chance of the Pauline sect becoming the template of the Christianity of today. Had the war between the Romans and Jews not happened or had Paul failed to convert enough gentiles to his sect to outnumber those who followed James we could have a Messianic Jewish-based Christianity today. Our canon and our worship would be different, but because it would have been accepted, orthodox, and traditional, Christians would follow it as they follow the Pauline sect now. It is only by chance, or by the hand of god that the Didache is not the main document of catechism in the church today. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Tom Prodehl. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/115283/bk_acx0_115283_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Finnish belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric family of languages. There are approximately 5.2 million Finnish speakers, mostly in Finland, and some in Sweden and Russia as well. There are 3 varieties of standard Finnish: ´´kirjakieli´´ or ´´book language” which is used in official documents, official speeches and the daily news; ´´yleiskieli´´ or ´´standard language” which is taught in schools - formal and correct, though more relaxed than the ´´book language´´; and ´´puhekieli´´ or ´´spoken language´´ which is a frequently changing, more casual variety used in everyday conversation. This course teaches the standard Finnish language, ´´yleiskieli.´´ Surprise your friends! Astonish your family! With Pimsleur, you’ll be speaking and understanding like a native in no time. 30 minutes a day is all it takes. Finnish Phase 1, Units 06-10 build on material taught in prior units. Each lesson provides 30 minutes of spoken language practice, with an introductory conversation, and new vocabulary and structures. Detailed instructions enable you to understand and participate in the conversation. Each lesson contains practice for vocabulary introduced in previous lessons. The emphasis is on pronunciation and comprehension, and on learning to speak Finnish. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Pimsleur. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/sans/006063/bk_sans_006063_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
About Modern Standard Arabic: Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), also known as Standard Arabic or Literary Arabic, is the variety of Arabic used in writing and in formal speech. MSA is spoken by an estimated 300 million people worldwide. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Modern Standard Arabic is the official language of all Arab countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all levels. Because of this, MSA is the lingua franca of all educated Arabic speakers, regardless of nationality or spoken native dialect. It is used in the news, schools, official documents, and courts of law. MSA bears great resemblance to Classical Arabic, the language of ancient poetry and the Quran. The Modern Standard Arabic alphabet contains 28 basic letters and is read from right to left. Surprise your friends! Astonish your family! With Pimsleur®, you’ll be speaking and understanding like a native in no time. Thirty-two minutes a day is all it takes. Modern Standard Arabic Level 2 Lessons 6-10 build on material taught in prior lessons. Each lesson provides 32 minutes of spoken language practice, with an introductory conversation and new vocabulary and structures. Detailed instructions enable you to understand and participate in the conversation. Each lesson contains practice for vocabulary introduced in previous lessons. The emphasis is on pronunciation and comprehension and on learning to speak Modern Standard Arabic. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Pimsleur. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/sans/006844/bk_sans_006844_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.